IOM started its activities in Iran in July 1990 by focusing on evacuation of third country nationals caught in the Iraq-Kuwait conflict. By the end of 2000, IOM, jointly with the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), repatriated approximately 370,000 Afghan nationals voluntarily to Afghanistan. The Islamic Republic of Iran had joined IOM as an observer in 1995. Iran was accepted as a full member in IOM’s Governors’ Council in 2001. Since 2004, IOM has changed its refugee-oriented approach and adopted a guiding program/policy-oriented approach with the purpose of assisting Iran in migration management issues and tackling the new challenges the country is exposed to.